1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 This Waikato-Tainui Environmental Plan, Tai Tumu Tai Pari Tai Ao (the ‘Plan’), is developed out of Whakatupuranga 2050. Whakatupuranga 2050 is a long-term development approach to building the capacity of Waikato-Tainui (([1] NOTE: A word or words that is/are further defined in the glossary will be bolded and italicised the first time it appears in the Plan.)) marae, hapuu, and iwi and will be a legacy for those who come after. Key strategic objectives include tribal identity and integrity, including “to grow our tribal estate and manage our natural resources.” The Plan is designed to enhance Waikato-Tainui participation in resource and environmental management

1.1.2 In this Plan, ‘Waikato-Tainui’ means people who descend from or affiliate to a recognised Waikato-Tainui whaanau, marae, hapuu, or iwi. A person is recognised as being affiliated to a Waikato-Tainui marae, hapuu, or iwi only if that marae, hapuu, or iwi recognises that affiliation. ‘Waikato-Tainui’ also, where the context allows, includes the various organisations or bodies that Waikato-Tainui establishes to manage the individual and collective affairs of Waikato-Tainui. This includes, but is not limited to committees, trusts, or other organisations for marae, hapuu, management committees, clusters of the same, the relevant iwi authority or its delegated body, and other structures that, from time to time, Waikato-Tainui people may establish to consider matters of relevance under this Plan. Refer to Appendix 1 for a list of Waikato-Tainui marae.

1.1.3 This Plan is particularly suitable for those within Waikato-Tainui who are kaitiaki and/or exercise kaitiakitanga and/or are mana whenua within their particular part of the overall Waikato-Tainui rohe. Waikato-Tainui groups may already have or will develop their own environmental plans and policies additional to this Plan, and are able to use this Plan as they wish to complement their own efforts. For clarity, if Waikato-Tainui groups wish to have this Plan complement their own environmental plans and policies, these various documents are to be considered together as if they were written as a single document. If any inconsistencies exist between the documents, this Plan supports the use of the highest target or measure.

1.1.4 The Plan is also intended as a tool to provide clear high-level guidance on Waikato-Tainui objectives and policies with respect to the environment to resource managers, users and activity operators, and those regulating such activities, within the Waikato-Tainui rohe. Waikato-Tainui recognises that the successful achievement of the objectives in this Plan is a team approach that requires input and support from these external agencies. Waikato-Tainui acknowledges that there may be more that one agency involved in the successful achievement of the Plan’s objectives due to the different mandate, legislation, drivers, and motivation across external agencies. Waikato-Tainui encourages and advocates for external agencies to do what they can to achieve the Plan’s objectives. The Plan seeks to describe the position of Waikato-Tainui with respect to the environment and to the context and perspectives of Waikato-Tainui.

1.1.5 Some of the objectives and policies in this Plan are reasonably straightforward and should be business as usual for many agencies involved in resource management or use, or in activities that have an effect on the environment. Other objectives and policies are more aspirational and will require collaboration, planning, and time to be achieved. The maimai aroha of Kiingi Taawhiao is the key driver and indicator of environmental health and wellbeing in this Plan. Objectives and policies in the Plan are crafted with this maimai aroha in mind and Waikato-Tainui is hopeful that restoring the environment to the state that Kiingi Taawhiao observed when he composed his maimai aroha, is a vision that is shared by all who manage or use environmental resources or that undertake activities that effect the environment.

1.1.6 Waikato-Tainui supports and promotes a coordinated, co-operative, and collaborative approach to natural resource and environmental management, restoration, and care within the Waikato-Tainui rohe. Through this Plan Waikato- Tainui seeks to achieve a consistent approach to environmental management across the Waikato-Tainui rohe. This Plan is a living, evolving, working document that will be monitored, revised and updated to ensure it remains relevant and provides a framework for continuous improvement.

1.2 Waikato-Tainui

1.2.1 Prior to the land wars and resulting confiscation of Waikato-Tainui lands in 1863, Waikato-Tainui marae, hapuu, and iwi exercised mana whakahaere without challenge. Mana whakahaere refers to the authority that Waikato-Tainui has established in respect of the Waikato-Tainui rohe over many generations. Mana whakahaere entails the exercise of rights and responsibilities to ensure that the balance and mauri (life force) of the rohe is maintained. It is based in recognition that if we care for the environment, the environment will continue to sustain the people. In customary terms mana whakahaere is the exercise of control, access to, and management of resources within the Waikato-Tainui rohe in accordance with tikanga. For Waikato-Tainui, mana whakahaere has long been exercised under the mana of the Kiingitanga. Waikato-Tainui managed its resources, including the fisheries and lands, in a sustainable manner, guided by maatauranga, tikanga and kawa. Traditional management was successful in that it ensured the following:

(a) Manaakitanga: Waikato-Tainui was able to provide sustenance for all manuwhiri that arrived in the rohe. The ability to care and support manuwhiri demonstrated the mana and wealth of the tribe;

(b) Kiingitanga: The appointment of Pootatau Te Wherowhero as the first Maaori King was not only based on his whakapapa, exceptional skills as a warrior, and intricate knowledge of te Ao Maaori (the Maaori World), but also in recognition of the rich resources he commanded from the surrounding environment. The new King would be required to feed the masses on a regular basis, and the resources within the rohe enabled the King to provide a bountiful amount of food.

(c) Tikanga: Management of resources ensured that Waikato-Tainui could continually provide for Waikato-Tainui and all manuwhiri. The tools required to sustain resources was encapsulated in tikanga. Tikanga ensured that, during customary gatherings, acknowledgement was provided to the domain of the various Atua to respect the mutual relationship and guarantee a successful bounty for the following years. Tikanga embodies all aspects of mana whakahaere.

Tikanga that worked for Waikato-Tainui tuupuna in Hawaiki needed to evolve to suit the environmental conditions that existed in Aotearoa. Tikanga in the management of resources is a living, evolving concept that Waikato-Tainui developed over generations learning from experience, from both successes and failures, in resource management.

(d) Kaitiakitanga: Waikato-Tainui has a responsibility to protect and nurture the mauri of all living things. The exercise of kaitiakitanga recognises the intricate balance and integral relationship between all natural resources. Waikato-Tainui learnt and long recognised that, in order for the environment to sustain life, people in turn, had to protect and sustain the environment. Waikato-Tainui strives to ensure that kaitiakitanga is inherent in all its actions.

1.3 Purpose of the Plan

The overarching purpose of the Plan is to provide a map or pathway that will return the Waikato-Tainui rohe to the modern day equivalent of the environmental state that it was in when Kiingi Taawhiao composed his maimai aroha. To do this, the Plan seeks to:

1.3.1 Provide the overarching position of Waikato-Tainui on the environment;

1.3.2 Consolidate and describe Waikato-Tainui values, principles, knowledge and perspectives on, relationship with, and objectives for natural resources and the environment;

1.3.3 Underpin the development of a consistent and integrated approach to environmental management within the Waikato-Tainui rohe;

1.3.4 Describe Waikato-Tainui environmental issues;

1.3.5 Provide tools to enhance Waikato-Tainui mana whakahaere and kaitiakitanga, particularly when participating in resource and environmental management through:

(a) Influencing the development of all environmental policies and plans that affect Waikato-Tainui;

(b) Establishing a framework for resource and environmental management to support tribal members, whether as whaanau, marae, hapuu, or whatever grouping Waikato-Tainui, from time to time, choose to adopt;

(c) Providing mechanisms to restore and protect the natural environment of Waikato-Tainui, whilst recognising the reasonable needs of local communities;

(d) Actively contributing to the co-management of the Waikato River;

(e) Influencing local and national decision makers;

(f) Providing a guide for resource users or developers in the Waikato-Tainui rohe;

(g) Affecting how and where development may occur; and

(h) Providing clear and consistent issues statements, policies, and methods to manage natural resources. Provide guidance to external agencies regarding Waikato-Tainui values, principles, knowledge and perspectives on, relationship with, and objectives for natural resources and the environment.

1.4 Interpretation

1.4.1 The Plan is to be interpreted in a manner that best furthers the overarching purpose of the Plan, in particular the restoration and protection of both the environment and the special relationship Waikato-Tainui has with the environment.

1.5 Reviewing the Plan

1.5.1 This Plan is a living, evolving, working document that will be monitored, revised and updated to ensure it remains relevant and provides a framework for continuous improvement. Waikato-Tainui welcomes comments at any time from any Waikato-Tainui or external user of the Plan that may improve the Plan so as to better achieve the Plan’s overarching purpose. Any person with an interest in the Plan can suggest an amendment to the Plan.

1.5.2 The process to review the Plan will be context specific and best practice. Waikato-Tainui Te Kauhanganui Incorporated may initiate a formal review of all or part of the Plan from time to time. It is intended that the Plan may be reviewed, in part, annually, with a more comprehensive review taking place at five yearly intervals.

1.5.3 In considering whether to initiate a review of the Plan WTTKI will also consider:

(a) Whether the review is WTTKI initiated or due to suggestions from a Waikato-Tainui or external users of the Plan;

(b) Whether to review all or part of the Plan at the time of the review;

(c) If the proposed review is likely to result in an amended Plan that better achieves the Plan’s overarching purpose;

(d) The effect of the proposed review on Waikato-Tainui whaanui (such as, whaanau, marae, hapuu, relevant iwi, entities);

(e) The need to be able to respond to any emerging issues that may trigger a Plan review;

(f) The resource implications and constraints of undertaking the review (time, costs, expertise required); and

(g) Any other matters required to be considered.

1.5.4 The review process will have the necessary degree of formality to ensure the review is robust and considers the views of different users of the Plan. Key steps may include, but not necessarily be limited to:

(a) Considering the nature and extent of any review and confirming a review process;

(b) Advising Waikato-Tainui and external users of the intention to review the Plan and the parts of the Plan under review, and the review process;

(c) Providing, electronically, any supporting information for the review;

(d) Conducting hui, as required and subject to any resourcing constraints, to consider the review;

(e) Allowing for a whakaaro or feedback period for those with an interest in the Plan to provide comment;

(f) Receiving comments back on the review, preferably in writing but also from any notes taken at hui;

(g) Issuing a written report summarising the whakaaro received and the amendments, if any, proposed for the Plan;

(h) Allowing for a period for further comments to be provided; and

(i) Deciding on and distributing final amendments to the Plan.

1.5.5 When the Plan is reviewed any amendments may be issued as a formal amendment to the Plan or may result in the Plan being fully reprinted.