River, stream, waterways, fresh water bodies.


Gods, deities with responsibilities for different physical and spiritual realms or elements.


River, stream, waterways, fresh water bodies.

Best practice, best practicable option, best management practice

The best method of managing adverse effects on the environment have regard, among other things, to:

a) The nature of the effect and the sensitivity of the environment that would be impacted by the effect;

b) The financial implications, and the effects on the environment, of that option when compared with other options;

c) The current state of technical knowledge and the likelihood that the option can be successfully applied;

d) The implications of that option on matters of significance (social, cultural, spiritual, environmental, or economical) to Waikato-Tainui.

Community benefit

A benefit that accrues to the community as a whole, particularly to the Waikato-Tainui community of whaanau, marae, and hapuu. The magnitude of the benefit should be commensurate with the scale of the activity. Community benefit should accrue to the communities close to the proposed or existing activity. For the purposes of this Plan, ‘community benefit’ does not mean individual benefit by way of employment, contracting, or engagement of local community members and businesses.


Where the context requires, an ‘effect’ is something that is produced or caused as a result of another action or inaction.

Effect (manage, managing, managed)

The hierarchy used to consider how to manage adverse effects. In order of first to last, effects should first be avoided, then remedied, then minimised, then mitigated, or balanced. Only Waikato-Tainui can determine, for Waikato-Tainui, if an adverse effect has been suitably managed. In some cases the Plan states an ideal outcome for an effect, such as to avoid the effect – this is intentional. Refer to Chapter 8, “Whakatikihia ngaa hua – managing effects” for more information.


Sub-tribe, usually containing a number of whaanau and marae with a common ancestor or ancestors.

Hauanga kai

The customary and contemporary gathering and use of naturally occurring and cultivated foods.


Extended kinship group, tribe, nation, people, nationality, race – often refers to a large group of people descended from a common ancestor.


Caregiver, caretaker, the role of protecting and nurturing the mauri of all living things and the surrounding inanimate environment.


The exercise of kaitiaki roles and responsibilities. The exercise of kaitiakitanga recognises the intricate balance and integral relationship between all natural resources. Waikato-Tainui learnt and long recognised that, in order for the environment to sustain life, people in turn, had to protect and sustain the environment. Waikato-Tainui strives to ensure that kaitiakitanga is inherent in all its actions. Responsible kaitiakitanga includes the care, protection, and/or sustainable use of resources. Responsible kaitiakitanga includes Waikato-Tainui whaanau, marae, hapuu, and entities sustainably using the resources within their respective rohe.


Elders (male or female)


Underlying principles that govern behaviour.


Human bones



Maatauranga Maaori

raditional and contemporary Maaori knowledge, knowledge systems, and knowledge bases. This includes the body of knowledge originating from Maaori ancestors, including the Maaori worldview and perspectives, Maaori creativity, and cultural and spiritual practices. As an organic and living knowledge base, maatauranga Maaori is ever growing and expanding.

Maimai Aroha E

Expression or token of affection.


Authority, spiritual authority, protective power and prestige.


The provision of sustenance, care, and support, particularly in the hospitality shown to manuwhiri.

Mana whakahaere

Ultimate Mana whakahaere refers to the authority that Waikato-Tainui has established in respect of the Waikato-Tainui rohe over many generations. Mana whakahaere authority entails the exercise of rights and responsibilities to ensure that the balance and mauri (life force) of the rohe is maintained. It is based in recognition that if we care for the environment, the environment will continue to sustain the people. In customary terms mana whakahaere is the exercise of control, access to, and management of resources within the Waikato-Tainui rohe in accordance with tikanga. For Waikato-Tainui, mana whakahaere has long been exercised under the mana of the Kiingitanga.

Mana Whenua

The taangata whenua group or groups with primary mana whakahaere over an area. These areas could include groups with mana whakahaere over rivers and fresh water bodies (mana awa) and/or with mana whakahaere over marine environments (mana moana).

Manage/Managed/Managing effects

Refer to above definition for ‘Effect (manage, managing, managed)’.




Traditional and contemporary gathering places for Waikato-Tainui that may contain a whare nui (meeting house), wharekai (dining room), whareiti (ablution blocks), whare (other houses or structures). May also include a papakaainga.


Life force. Some hold the view that both animate (living) and inanimate (non-living – e.g. rocks) objects have mauri. Waikato-Tainui is intrinsically linked to the environment and so the mauri of the environment effects and is affected by the mauri of Waikato-Tainui. Having an effect on the environment’s mauri has a corresponding effect on the mauri of Waikato-Tainui.


Communities, places where Waikato-Tainui live primarily clustered around marae and other places of significance. ‘Papakaainga’ also means contemporary or ancient marae or paa sites with or without accompanying residences or buildings. The extent of individual papakaainga should be determined in consultation with Waikato-Tainui and is not necessarily confined to multiple owned Maaori land.


Prohibition placed on access to an area or resource. Prohibition placed on activity within, in, or on an area or with a resource. A method of managing behaviour and resources.

Ngaa Ihirangi

Contents, list of chapters.


Confiscation; in the case of Waikato-Tainui, the confiscation of lands in the Waikato-Tainui raupatu rohe, and includes the related invasion, hostilities, war, loss of life, destruction of taonga and property, and the consequent suffering, distress, and deprivation suffered by Waikato-Tainui.

Requiring Authority

A frequiring authority’ under the Resource Management Act 1991 is the Minister of the Crown, a local and regional authority, or a network utility operator approved by the Minister for the Environment.


Tribal region, generally in this Plan the tribal region of Waikato-Tainui, including the rohe of constituent marae and hapuu.
Tangata Whenua
Maaori and their whaanau, marae, hapuu and iwi that whakapapa, or have genealogical connections, back to the land by virtue of first or primary occupation of the land by ancestor(s) through a variety of mechanisms such as maintaining ahi kaa roa (long term occupation) or conquest


Treasure, resource and/or possession


Taonga tuku iho

Under the Waikato-Tainui Accord with the Ministry for Culture and Heritage, ‘taonga tuku iho’ is defined as those things that are highly prized and derived from iwi, hapuu and whaanau. They are whakapapa connected and are passed on from one generation to the next.  This includes:

a)      tangible objects such as types of heirlooms, artefacts, carvings, land and fisheries; and

b)      intangible substance such as language, spiritual beliefs, ideas and metaphysical gifts.


Values, ethics governing conduct






Waahi Tapuu

to Waikato-Tainui means those sites of significance that are highly prized.  They are areas (lands, waters and space) which exhibit the following:

a)      Cultural importance such as areas for cultural and spiritual purification, cleansing and/or ceremonial purposes, activities, natural places, fisheries and food gathering sites;

b)      Historical importance such as areas where significant battles occurred, significant and/or Kiingitanga events;

c)       Tribal importance such as existing and historical marae, papakaainga (communities), urupaa (burial grounds), tuahu (monuments), and areas of celebration; and/or

d)      Archaeological importance including areas where taonga tuku iho are discovered.

Waahi Tuupuna

Other sites of significance to Waikato-Tainui that may not necessarily be waahi tapu site. These may be sites of current or historical significance for purposes such as, but not limited to maara kai (gardens), waahi noho (residential sites), and sites of commerce.


People who descend from or affiliate to a recognised Waikato-Tainui marae, hapuu, or iwi. A person is recognised as being affiliated to a Waikato-Tainui marae, hapuu, or iwi only if that marae, hapuu, or iwi recognises that affiliation. ‘Waikato-Tainui’ also, where the context allows, includes the various organisations or bodies that Waikato-Tainui establishes to manage the individual and collective affairs of Waikato-Tainui. This includes, but is not limited to committees, trusts, or other organisations for marae, hapuu, management committees, clusters of the same, the relevant iwi authority or its delegated body, and other structures that, from time to time, Waikato-Tainui may establish to consider matters of relevance under this Plan.

Water body/ies

Any body of water, including tributaries, streams, lakes, wetlands, oceans, peat lakes, etc.


The area of and adjacent to any water body, including ocean, lake, river, and stream.


Thought, opinion, plan, understanding, idea, intention, gift


Shame or embarrassment.


Family unit, not always of immediate family, and may include those that are family by marriage, adoption, fostering, or other close relationship.


Broad, wide, extensive