13.1 Introduction

 13.1.1 Papakaainga are communities or places where Waikato-Tainui live primarily clustered around marae and other places of significance. Papakaainga may also be contemporary or ancient marae or paa sites with or without accompanying residences or buildings. The extent of individual papakaainga should be determined in consultation with Waikato-Tainui and is not necessarily confined to multiple owned Maaori land.

13.1.2 For the purposes of this Plan, this chapter discussing papakaainga also applies to marae. Marae without accompanying dwellings have slightly different needs to a papakaainga. marae may include a complex of buildings such as wharenui (meeting house), wharekai (dining hall), wharepaku (ablution block), urupaa (cemetery) and other community, health, recreational and educational facilities, and papakaainga (dwellings) generally associated with a marae.

13.1.3 Over time, people have moved away from traditional areas of settlement like marae and papakaainga. There is an increasing desire from many Waikato-Tainui people to reconnect with these areas. Papakaainga may, by definition, be one of the last places where Waikato-Tainui can live as taangata whenua or people of our lands. The ability and choice to live as Waikato-Tainui in papakaainga is important to our economic, social, cultural and spiritual health and wellbeing. Papakaainga also have a relationship with the wider community in which they sit.

13.1.4 In the future, papakaainga will not necessarily be limited to multiple owned Maaori Land around a marae complex. It is likely to extend to include communities living in and around marae, waahi tapu and sites of significance on privately owned, general title land. This may also include Waikato-Tainui communities living in other urban or rural residential clusters. Papakaainga are aligned to thoughts around nodal and rural clusters. The access to or inclusion of transport and community infrastructure should be considered a measure of successful papakaainga.

13.1.5 The demographics of papakaainga are likely to change. For example, it may be that papakaainga populations will become younger with growing opportunities from marae, hapuu and iwi economic development encouraging younger people to move back to papakaainga. This will enable Waikato-Tainui to live, work and play in the environs of papakaainga as mana whenua of their papakaainga. This may also encourage the establishment of new papakaainga and marae while putting pressure on the current resources available for papakaainga use.

13.1.6 Successful papakaainga have and will continue to have links with social, health and education providers, access to economic opportunity, and a sustainable environmental footprint. Many providers may, in future, reside or have facilities within a papakaainga boundary.

13.1.7 Marae and papakaainga within urban settings are likely to be able to manage development aspirations within existing planning rules.

13.2 Issues

Papakaainga development in rural and urban areas

13.2.1 It could be argued that the intensity of development for marae and associated papakaainga is more aligned to residential development than rural. The main limiting factor to development will be the ability to service development with water supply, stormwater, and wastewater treatment and disposal services; and this  may mean that papakaainga development requires a resource consent.

13.2.2 Most existing marae are within rural areas, where the anticipated density of settlement is less than that associated with traditional papakaainga settlements.

13.2.3 Marae and papakaainga that are or may be developed may be subject to resistance from people who do not wish this type of development in their neighbourhood.

13.3 Objectives, Policies & Methods

Objective – papakaainga development in rural and urban areas

13.3.1 Papakaainga development is sustainable and supported.

Policy – sustainable papakaainga development To ensure that papakaainga development is sustainable and supported.


(a) Papakaainga are encouraged to have a papakaainga development plan that considers water supply, stormwater, wastewater treatment and disposal services, and access to other infrastructure needs.

(b) Papakaainga development in rural areas to have access to adequate water supply, stormwater, wastewater treatment and disposal services, and to other infrastructure needs.

(c) Encourage papakaainga development to be staged to the degree required to ensure the development is sustainable.

(d) Surrounding land use is sensitive to existing or impending papakaainga development.

Policy – papakaainga development in rural and urban areas To ensure that papakaainga are able to be developed within rural and urban areas.


(a) Waikato-Tainui marae, hapuu and iwi signal intentions around marae and papakaainga development as much in advance as practicable to allow for overall rural or urban land use planning for the area.

(b) Those involved in land use planning work with Waikato-Tainui to seek an indication of current and future marae and papakaainga development plans and aspirations.

(c) Land use planning in rural and urban areas enables existing and future marae and papakaainga to be developed.

(d) Land use planning in rural and urban areas anticipates sensitivities in marae and papakaainga development so that the overall character and amenity of the area is maintained while allowing the marae or papakaainga development to proceed.